2020年高考英语语法专项突破训练专题18-虚拟语气(含答案) 联系客服

专题十八 虚拟语气

重难点分析

虚拟语气是英语中一个较大的语法项目,高考语法填空和短文改错都曾经设过考点,考生应予以重视。英语中的语气分为陈述语气、祈使语气、虚拟语气、疑问语气和感叹语气五类。虚拟语气表示说话人的愿望、假设、猜测或建议,而不是表示客观存在的事实。此外如需表达主观愿望或某种强烈的感情时,也可用虚拟语气。虚拟语气通过谓语动词的特殊形式来表示。

一、虚拟语气在从句中的用法和构成一览表 类别 if引导的条件状语从句 与将来事实相反 从句动词:过去式/ should+动词原形/ were+不定式;主句动词:与过去事实相反 与现在事实相反 用法 从句动词:过去式(be多用were,但在口语中,如果主语是第一/三人称,be动词可用was);主句动词:should/would/could/might+动词原形 从句动词:had+过去分词;主句动词:should/would/could/might + have+过去分词 If I had been free, I would have visited you. 如果我那时有空,我就会去拜访你了。 If it should rain tomorrow, we would not go camping. 如果明天下雨,我们就不去露营了。 例句 If he were here, he would help us. 如果他在这,他会帮我们的。 should/would/could/might +动词原形 其他状语从句 as if/though引导的状语从句中动词用过去式或过去完成式 even if/though引导的从句,与现在/将来事实相反时,从句动词用过去式,主句动词用should/would+动词原形;与过去事实相反时,从句动词用had+过去分词,主句动词用should/would+ have+过去分词 宾语从句 demand, require, advise, suggest, order, insist(坚持要求)等表命令、建议、要求的动词后所接的宾语从句中的动词用(should)+动词原形 They are talking was if they were/ had been friends for years. 他们交谈着,好像是多年的老朋友。 Even if we failed, we wouldn’t lose courage. 即使我们失败了,我们也不会失去勇气。 He suggested that we (should) not change our mind. 他建议我们不要改变主意。

wish后所接的宾语从句中的谓语动词分别用过去式、过去I wish I could be a pop singer. 我希完成式和could/would+动词原形表示与现在、过去和将来望我是一名流行歌手。 情况相反的假设 主语从句 在It is necessary/important/strange that…, It is suggested/ It is strange that such a person demanded/ordered/requested that…等后所接的主语从句中,谓语动词用(should)+动词原形 表语从句和同位语从句 idea, advice, order, demand, request等表命令、建议、要求的名词后所接的表语从句和同位语从句中的谓语动词用(should)+动词原形 should be our friends. 很奇怪的是这样一个人会成为我们的朋友。 My advice is that you (should) finish your homework first. 我的建议是你首先应该做完家庭作业。 The idea that you (should) go is right. 你走的建议是正确的。 其他句型中 It is (high) time that…句型中定语从句的谓语动词用过去式It is high time that we left. 该是我或should+动词原形(优先使用过去式) would rather所接的从句中动词用过去式或者过去完成式 们离开的时候了。 I would rather you stayed at home now. 我宁愿你现在待在家里。 if only句型中动词常用过去式或者过去完成式,表示强烈If only our dream had come true! 的愿望

二、其他要注意的事项

1. 虚拟语气中出现be的过去式,在口语中,当主语是第一、三人称单数时,可用was,但在if的倒装句中只能用were。如:Were I you, I would apologize to her. 如果我是你的话,我就会去向她道歉。

2. suggest表“暗示、表明”和insist表“坚持认为”时,其后的宾语从句用陈述语气。如: Your pale face suggests that you are ill. 你苍白的脸色表明你生病了。

He insisted that he was right. 他坚持认为他是对的。(如insist表“坚持要求”时,其后的宾语从句则要用虚拟语气)

3. if虚拟语气条件句中如有had, should, were,可省略if,并将这些词提前引起倒装。如: Were I you, I would remain. 如果我是你,我会留下来。

Had you told me earlier, I wouldn’t have missed it. 如果你早点告诉我,我就不会错过它了。 4. 可用without, but for构成的介词短语代替虚拟语气条件句。如:

要是我们的梦想成真该多好!

But for your help, I would have failed the exam. 如果没有你的帮助,我不会通过考试的。 Without water, there would be no life. 没有水,就没有生命。

5. as if/though, even if/though引导的从句也可以不用虚拟语气,表示真实的情况。如: It looks as if it is going to rain. 看起来似乎要下雨了。 考点练透

一、单句填空 用括号中所给动词的适当形式填空。

1. — If he ___________ (warn), he ___________ (not take) that food. — Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately.

2. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it ___________ (break). 3. I would rather they ___________ (not hear) of the news. 4. I wish ___________ (have) a room of my won when I was a child. 5. But for the teacher, I ___________ (not change) my attitude to study yet.

6. Without air to hold some of the sun’s heat, the earth at night ___________ (be) freezing cold, too cold for us to stay.

7. If I had worked harder at school, I ___________ (sit) in a comfortable office now.

8. Her pale face suggested that she ___________ (be) ill, and her colleagues suggested that she ___________ (have) a medical examination.

9. I insisted he ___________ (go) to see a doctor, but he insisted nothing ___________ (be) wrong with him. 10. He asks that he ___________ (give) an opportunity to explain why he has refused to go there. 11. It is high time we ___________ (get) down to discuss this plan.

12. If it were not for the fact that you ___________ (be) too busy, I would ask you to help me do this right now.

13. Who do you suggest ___________ (send) to work there?

14. I would have come earlier, but I ___________ (not know) that you were waiting for me. 15. If it ___________ (rain) tomorrow, the outing would be cancelled. 16. If there were no air, people ___________ (die).

17. If he ___________ (study) harder, he might pass the exam.

18. If he ___________ (take) my advice, he would not have made such a mistake. 19. We would rather you ___________ (go) here tomorrow.

20. It is high time that you ___________ (go) to pick up your daughter at school.

二、语篇填空 用括号中所给词的适当形式填空。

I am a middle school student. I have many dreams. If there 1 (be) not so much homework, I would have more time to do what I like to do. How I wish I 2 (listen) to my favorite music for an hour a day and 3 (play) table tennis for an hour in the morning. It is my desire that we 4 (hold) evening parties or 5 (organize) some interesting activities at weekend. I suggest that there 6 (be) not so many tests. You can imagine what life 7 (will) be if I 8 (realize) my dream. But I must fact the exams. Without good marks, I 9 (will) not enter my ideal university. Anyway, it’s high time that I 10 (encourage) myself and worked hard from now on.

三、语法填空 阅读下面短文, 在空白处填入一个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。

What will happen if ice caps melt? The level of the world’s oceans will rise. 1 this is not the real problem, the problem is that these white ice caps reflect sunlight, much of 2 is reflected back into space, in turn 3 (cool) earth, but with the ice caps melting, 4 only reflector is the ocean, darker color absorbs sunlight causing further warming of the earth which can be up to 80 °C which is fatal (致命的) and can cause 5 (extinct) of all living organisms.

●If all the ice melted, north and south pole, Antarctica, Greenland, and all, sea levels would rise 6 175 and 225 feet.

●Coastal areas would essentially disappear, and roughly a third of the earth’s existing landmass (大陆) 7 (flood). It is estimated that 60% of the world’s population lives in the coastal plains.

●Many inland areas would be affected as well, 8 water tables, rivers, and lakes would all rise 9 their previous heights.

●The animals that live in the cold (polar bears, penguins and arctic foxes) will become endangered.

Most important of all, there are many other 10 (predict) bad results human may be faced with. Are you afraid of that now?

助读词汇

reflector n. 反射物 absorb vt. 吸收

essentially adv. 基本上 roughly adv. 粗略地 plain n. 平原 in turn 转而